On Friday, the 16th, in Brasília, IBGE announced changes in the information and communication technology thematic module of the continuous national household sample survey – PNAD TIC. A reworked, new 2022 edition hits the ground running in the fourth quarter of this year to cover and identify the use of new technologies such as streaming, 5G and coexistence with satellite dishes, the Internet of Things (smart machines that connect to other machines); remote work, the use of different types of mobile applications, and even new forms of work mediated by technology.
This last topic is the result of an agreement with the Public Ministry of Labor and Unicamp. In addition to telecommuting data, data will be collected on activities carried out through digital platforms, such as various applications for transport, food and shopping. The proposal is to investigate the effects on working conditions and the so-called “Uberization”.
The news was presented by the director of research at IBGE Cimar Azeredo Pereira after the publication of the PNAD ICT 2021 data. During the presentation of the 2021 research, the special advisor of the Ministry of Economy Rogério Boueri Miranda and the secretaries of the Ministry of Telecommunications (MCOM) and Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), all with enumerators, they also emphasized the relevance of the 2022 demographic census and the importance of every citizen accepting the researchers.
“Attend the enumerators, with courtesy. We have to get to know the country and for that it is important that the enumerators are well received,” said Boueri.
Three types of questionnaires will go to the field
Regarding the new ICT PNAD, Cimar Azeredo pointed out that the survey has reached its sixth edition as an isolated thematic module, stating that the PNAD is collected in all states.
“In October, there will be three questionnaires that will go to the field: “ICT household”, “ICT people” and “Remote work and work via digital platforms”. Let’s explore things like 5G, IoT, streaming and internet usage. These are the data we were missing, and after Covid the importance of researching these topics has increased. We will assess the increase in the number of people working at home, progress in the use of ICT in remote work, paid activities through digital applications and what kind of working relationships these are,” said Cimar.
Among the changes in the home module is the return of the radio usage investigation, which turns 100 years old. They will ask if the household has a radio, even if it is integrated with other equipment such as clock radios, microcomputers and smart phones. Regarding the satellite dishes, the size of the dishes will be examined and whether they are actually used to receive an open TV signal.
IoT questions will identify smart devices
“In the Internet of Things, the question is whether the household has any smart home devices that can be accessed via the Internet, such as cameras, air conditioners or refrigerators, which is a question that will be very difficult to ask because there are still few things, but it is important to start standing up . Research into whether the household has access to paid services is also new streaming. Regarding the type of connection for Internet access at home, 5G has been added,” Cimar points out.
Alessandra Brito, PNAD TIC analyst, explains that, in relation to the main reason why the household does not have access to the Internet, since there was a very high frequency of disinterest, the survey was expanded to better investigate other reasons, such as lack of need , lack of time and security issues.
The ICT module of people asks how often people access the Internet from any place (home, work, school), the purpose of use (e-mail, calls, shopping, access to banks); free internet access (markets, parks, libraries, gas stations). “New questions are included because the goal is to determine if a person is using the Internet, even if they are not aware of it, such as sending emails or using WhatsApp,” explains analyst Alessandra Brito.
Working conditions and relations mediated by the platform
The third module is the result of a partnership between Unicamp and the State Ministry of Labour, which asked IBGE to include a special module on working on digital platforms in Contínua’s PNAD. Cimar informs that IBGE has an agreement on technical cooperation with two institutions in the works.
“We will explore working remotely and working through digital platforms. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), remote work is work that is performed outside the place where the person works, that is, at an alternative place – home, cafes, hotels, co-working; telecommuting is remote work that uses the Internet. For this, your profession and your position in the profession will be taken into account, whether you are employed or self-employed. Apart from the use of electronic devices”, explains Cimar.
In the case of working through digital platforms, the idea is to identify, for an individual or major business, the role, strength and influence of the application in the execution of tasks, in pricing, in deadlines, in the selection of clients and promotion strategies, for example. It will also assess customer acquisition through apps, sales through e-commerce platforms, etc. “We will build important indicators on working conditions and relationships. The ILO has revised the international classification of the state of employment and is monitoring the problem, warns the research director of IBGE.
The ministries emphasize the importance of PNAD ICT for public policies
Since its first edition in 2013, PNAD TIC contributes to the management of public policies in the field of technology in different spheres of government. This strategic contribution was confirmed again during the presentation of the results of PNAD TIC 2021 held in the fourth quarter of last year.
In 2021, the research revealed several trends, such as the increase in the use of TVs for Internet access at home, the displacement of microcomputers as the second option after mobile phones; decrease in the ownership of microcomputers, tablets and fixed telephones; and the increase in fixed broadband use, the dominance of mobile due to the pandemic and the expansion of fiber in regions such as the North and North East.
“We already expected important changes in the PNAD ICT 2021 indicators, but the data show this with statistical precision. We do not deal with narratives, but with evidence. This is what the largest household survey in Latin America offers: evidence. This disclosure is important for us to understand the changes related to work and habits that Covid-19 has brought to people’s lives”, said the special advisor for economic affairs at the Ministry of Economy, Rogério Boueri Miranda.
He noted that there were so many changes that the next module of PNAD ICT, which will go on the field in the 4th quarter of 2022, had to be reformulated. “It will include aspects related to the changes that have taken place in recent years – such as the implementation of the 5G network in the country, the Internet of Things and streaming videos – while expanding the investigation into internet usage,” Miranda reiterated.
For the Deputy Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Johnny Ferreira dos Santos, the PNAD ICT project is very relevant because the research shows progress in ICT policies in the country.
“Continuous PNAD, as a whole, is already a very important job, and the maintenance of the ICT module is fundamental. We have a digital government plan to improve public services, and it is crucial to have adequate connectivity, quality mobile services and internet access. The pandemic has accelerated the demand for these services. It is important to improve these policies, and nothing better than IBGE to bring this radiography in a dynamic way, through PNAD TIC”, said the secretary.
MCTI’s Secretary of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, José Gustavo Gontijo, noted that the country is leading Brazil’s strategy for digital transformation (E-Digital), and the information revealed by PNAD TIC will help build public policies with the national Internet of Things Plan. “We have been working to develop broadband internet and digital inclusion in the country, and we just have to grow using that information,” Gontijo said.
IBGE diagnoses and predicts trends in the field of technology
The Telecommunications Secretary of the Ministry of Communications (MCOM), Nathália Almeida de Souza Lobo, emphasized that the IBGE research guides all diagnoses and reviews to improve public policies. This happened at the 5G auction, when the investments of telecommunications companies were defined.
“We miss it a lot when we don’t have information like in 2020 when PNAD TIC did not go to the field. Information is used continuously and tells us a lot about the use of telecommunications. The survey is our main indicator for the Multi-Year Plan and the main instrument of the state strategy in telecommunications. For our public policies, we use indicators of the number of households with broadband Internet in the country. Before PPA, the indicator was 74% of households; in PNAD TIC 2019, it was 84%. In 2021, our goal was 85%, and for 2023 it is 91%,” said Nathália.
MCOM Secretary for Broadcasting, Maximiliano Salvatori Martinhão, stated that IBGE is a partner in the country’s public policy, providing data that enables the achievement of the goals that the administration wants from public services. And he joked that MCom deals with services that the population likes the most.
“In broadcasting, we already had more than 90% of households with TV or radio. We now have more than 90% of Brazilian households with internet access. This is transformative. For this, it is important to conduct research like PNAD TIC, which has been helping us since 2016. In the field of broadcasting, these data will be fundamental for two policies. One relates to the transition from analog to digital TV by 2023. We will have to distribute sets. Also, as a result of the 5G auction, we will have the migration of satellite TV reception from the C band to the KU band”, informed Martinhão. The KU band is the one where there is no interference from the 5G service.
The advisor of the National Telecommunications Agency (Anatel), Artur Coimbra de Oliveira, pointed out that IBGE is one of the most relevant official statistical bodies in the world.
“In the telecommunications sector, I dare to say that it is the most relevant, not only because of the methodological consistency in defining international level indicators, but also because it indicates technological trends much earlier than other statistical bodies in the world. It was thanks to IBGE, with a very accurate and consistent diagnosis, that we started digitizing television with a clear display of how many households have analog TV. And that families no longer have a computer to access the Internet only with a mobile phone, something that other statistical bodies were slow to understand. IBGE has managed to achieve a perfect balance between methodological consistency over time and adaptation to such a dynamic sector”, concluded Adviser Anatel.